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PublicationHabakkuk 2:4 in Early Judaism, in Hebrews, and in Paul2011 Hultgren, StephenChapter 1 investigates the interpretation of Hab 2:3–4 in early Judaism on the evidence of the Septuagint and Qumran. The Septuagint and Qumran may provide evidence for an eschatological-forensic tradition of interpretation.Chapter 2 traces the possible eschatologicalforensic interpretation of Hab 2:3–4 into Hebrews. A proposal for the unique rendering of Hab 2:4 in Heb 10:38 is made, which relates that rendering to the theme of confession in Heb 10:19– 12:3. The possibility is raised of a confessional Sitz im Leben for the use of Hab 2:4 in early Christianity. Chapter 3 relates the use of Hab 2:4 in Rom 1:16–17 to justification by faith without works of the Law by way of the confessional material in Rom 10:9–13 and Paul’s exposition of that theme in 3:21–26. Chapter 4 investigates the logic of Gal 3:10–14 and the crucial role that Hab 2:4 plays there.
PublicationThe Origin of Paul’s Doctrine of the Two Adams in 1 Corinthians 15.45–49(Journal for the Study of the New Testament; 25 ) 2003 Hultgren, Stephen
PublicationA New Literary Analysis of CD XIX–XX, Part I: CD XIX:1–32a (with CD VII:4b–VIII:18b). The Midrashim and the ‘Princes of Judah’(Revue de Qumran; 21 ) 2004 Hultgren, Stephen
Publication“Hilastērion (Rom 3:25) and the Union of Divine Justice and Mercy. Part I: The Convergence of Temple and Martyrdom Theologies"(Journal of Theological Studies; 70 (1) ) 2019 Hultgren, StephenThe meaning of ἱλαστήριον in Rom. 3:25 continues to be debated. This study favors the ‘mercy seat’ interpretation but also proposes a new way to conceive how temple and martyrdom theologies might have converged in Paul’s theology. Previous scholarship proposed a convergence through the generic concept of Christ as sacrificial victim. The lexical evidence does not support such a view. Rather for Paul Christ is ‘the place of atonement’ where divine justice and mercy meet. Part 1 lays the groundwork. In the priestly theology the sin offering purifies the temple, preventing a ‘build-up’ of sin and God’s departure in wrath, leading to death (a manifestation of divine justice), and also serves as a ransom (divine mercy) for those who would otherwise be ‘cut off’ for violating the temple. In the Old Testament the כַּפֹּרֶת on the Day of Atonement is the place of atonement par excellence. In 2 Maccabees the martyrs bear the death due the whole people for their sins (divine justice) and serve as a ransom for the people (divine mercy). Martyrdom is interpreted within a narrative framework centering on divine neglect and care for the temple. The conceptual parallelism between temple and martyrdom theologies enabled their convergence.
Publication"Alexander" (5)2010 Hultgren, Stephen
PublicationEvent, Word, Faith: (Critically) Engaging Bultmann in Johannine Theology2021 Hultgren, Stephen ; Landmesser, C. ; Bormann, L.
Publication“Alexander” (6)2010 Hultgren, Stephen
PublicationA New Literary Analysis of CD XIX–XX, Part II: CD XIX:32b–XX:34. The Punctuation of CD XIX:33b–XX:1a and the Identity of the ‘New Covenant'(Revue de Qumran; 22 ) 2005 Hultgren, Stephen
PublicationThe ‘New Perspective on Paul’: Exegetical Problems and Historical-Theological Questions(Lutheran Theological Journal; 50 (1) ) 2016 Hultgren, StephenIt is a pleasure to offer a contribution in honour of my colleague Dr. Dean Zweck. The editor asked if I might contribute something on the so-called 'new perspective on Paul' (henceforth NPP), which has been a topic of interest to Dean himself (Zweck 2007). I have also written on the topic elsewhere (Hultgren 2012). In this article I will discuss certain problems in the exegesis of Paul in the NPP, drawing on my previous work. In addition to the exegetical problems, I also wish to ask some historical-theological questions about the NPP. As biblical exegesis and church history have been Dean's main areas of work at ALC, it is fitting that this article encompasses both areas.
Publication“Alexander” (7)2010 Hultgren, Stephen